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Registered by Australia Post Vol.4 No.2 - SEPTEMBER 1987

Publication No. QBG 3956

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et] Meetings here and Hhen Editor’ s Notes Random Bits Goods & Services Cursory Notes A Very Basic Diary That Works! Reviews: Doiphin DOS ned ve The C-128 Subroutine Library {9 Besinner’s Guide to C64 Sound 16 Hashine Language Routines {? Freeze Fraie HK. ITIb 1 ‘Library Files Haintaining Your Computer Equipment Running Comment Games Corner Disk Error Tip

ytes- Sone Useful Tips Hail Box Directory


MAIN MEETING: Tuesday ist September 1987 in the Bardon Prof. Dev. Ctr. 390 Simpsons Rd. Bardon. Entrance through Car Park in Carwoola St. Doors open 7pm (library), Meeting starts at 8pm sharp. Library closes at 9.30pm.

#** HORE on Modems and Telecommunicatlons #%##

WORKSHOP: Sunday 13th September 1987 (lpm - Spm) in the Guidance Officers Training Ctr., Bayswater St. Milton. Bring your programming- or hardware problems, as well as

your own computer equipment! Opportunity to copy our Public Domain Disks. PLEASE NOTE: Workshop Meetings are for MEMBERS ONLY! Ph. Colin Shipley - 38 2511 a.h.

AMIGA MEETING: Sunday 6th September 1987 (1pm - 5pm) in the Playground & Recr. Assn. H.Q. Bidng., 10 Love St., Spring Hill.

Amiga Library open from 1.30pm - 2.30pm. Bring your own computer equipment to copy our Public Domain Disks! - Ph. Steve McNamee - 262 1127 a.h.


CANNON HILL meets on the 4th Saturday of the month (i2noon - 12pm) in the Cannon Hill State School. Ph. Barry Wilson - 399 6204 a.h. or Ron Jarvis - 399 6981 a.h. CAPALABA meets on the 3rd Saturday of the month (ipm - Spm) in the Capalaba State Primary School. (Redland Education Centre.) Ph. David Adams - 396 8501 a.h.

KENMORE meets on the ist Sunday of the month (1pm - Spm) in the Kenmore State School Library. Ph. Peter Reeve - 378 2665 a.h. or Keith Hadland - 378 6698 a.h.

KINGSTON meets on the 2nd Friday of the month (7pm - 10pm) in the Kingston State School. Ph. Peter Harker - 800 4929 a.h.

PINE RIVERS meets on the 2nd Sunday of the month (ipa - Spm) in the Strathpine High School. (rear entrance). Ph. Bruce Wylie - 359 9779 a.h.

SHERWOOD meets on the 2nd Friday of the month (7.30pm) in the Graceville State School. Ph. Leigh Winsor - 379 2405 a.h. or Philip Parkin - 818 i172 a.h.

THE GAP meets on the 3rd Wednesday of the month (7.30pm) in the Gap State School. Ph. Julianne Fallen - 300 2982 a.h.

WAVELL HEIGHTS meets on the 2nd Tuesday of the month in the Wavell Heights High School (library), Brae St. Ph. Cor Geels - 263 2839 a.h.

SUNSHINE COAST meets regularly. For meeting times,dates and places: Ph. Harvey Riddle - O71 / 42 1036 or Ph. Vic Mobbs - O71 / 94 1330

MARYBOROUGH/HERVEY BAY meets on the 4th Monday of the month (7pm - 10 pm) in the Sunbury St.School, Alice St. Ph. Terry Baade - O71 / 21 2271 (w) or 21 5059 a.h.


PRIMARY EDUCATION SUB-GROUP meets on the 3rd Tuesday of the month (7.30pm) in the Aspley State School. Ph. Bill Weeks - 208 8620 (work) or 341 2823 a.h.

PROGRAMMING SUB-GROUP meets during the Main Meeting in our Club Rooms.

Ph. Jim Vick - 345 1878 a.h.

CP/M SUB-GROUP meets during the Main Meeting in our Club Rooms.

Ph. Steinar Johansen - 207 3065 a.h.


Do you want to form a Sub-Group in your District? Contact our Sub-Group Coordinator, Terry Steer (Ph. 8068 2424 a.h.) for details.


Another A.G.M. is behind us and this one has brought some changes In its wake.

First and foremost our Treasurer Lester Bennett has decided not to stand for re- election, as he wishes to devote more time to his work and his Amiga.

Lester, who doesn’t have an accounting background, decided three years ago to take on the job of treasurer, mainly because nobody else wanted the job. Considering that at that time our financial records weren't in the best condition, he tackled the job wlth all possible vigour, and by the end of his first year as treasurer our auditors were very pleased with the fine Job that Lester had done. Well, the rest ig all history, and we can only sayt "Thanks Lester for a good job well done."

We are pleased to announce the appointment of John Van Staveren as our new Secretary. John has already acted for quite some time as the ‘understudy’ of our Treasurer, and we feel that our ’kitty’ is in good hands.

Another senior committee member who didn’t stand for re-election ts our Newsletter Editor, Ralph De Vries. However, after further discussions he has decided to return to the fold, but there will be some new names on the mast head of future editions of CURSOR. (Note to our erudite readers: yes, we do know that a mast head ig normally the front page of a publication, but itn the the case of CURSOR our mast head appears on the penultimate page!)

One major change, which takes effect from this issue, is that we have ae new printer for CURSOR. Our senior member, Terry Steer, has made us an offer which we couldn't refuse, and from now our newsletter is going to be produced on a high quality photo-copying system which should result in an overall improvement in quality. By setting up our pages in A4 format and than reducing them to AS size we expect to get a further improvement in quality. Hopefully we’ll be able to incorporate some further {mprovements in the newsletter’s appearance during’ the course of this new financlal year.

In this {issue we have ancther major contribution from Dr. Denis Wright of Armidale, as well as the first edition of our new Games Column team. However a very large section of this issue {s taken up with Reviews, with several articles from new contributors. It is good to see that go many new contributors are deciding to give it a go. Welcome on board, all!

Wa would like to draw your attention to Phil Gurney’s regular column - Cursory Notes - in this issue. Phil, Iike some other members before him, is asking some very pertinent questions which more and more of our sentor members are starting to ask. The answers aren't always go easy to find, but Phil’s article certainly makes you think.

Keep those contributions rolling in!

The Management Committee

ae at

=== = COmMmocore ==


363 BAYSWATER ROAD GARBUTT - TOWNSVILLE - 4814 Ph. (877) - 774 880



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MAIN MEETING (4th August)

The Annual General Meeting has been and gone. As mentioned in the Editor’s Notes, our Treasurer Lester Bennett has stood down after holding the position for three years. Thanks to his hard work our finances are in fine shape. We welcome John Van Staveren as his successor. John has for quite some time now acted as Assistant to the Treasurer, and should be a worthy holder of this office.

Our Newsletter Editor has decided not to stand for re-election, but see the Editor’s Notes Column for the latest news.

The feature talk was given by our Technical Coordinator, Greg Shea, who covered the subject of Modems. Unfortunately time was against us again, but as there was a great deal of interest in the subject there will be a second talk on modems during our next meeting.

AMIGA MEETING (2nd August)

The main features of this meeting were a demo given by Mark Constable on Amiga Sound, used in conjunction with Midi interfacing and synthesizers, which was very well received. Steve McNamee talked about programming in C, using the Lattice C compiler. This was another talk received with a lot of Interest. Public Domain (Fish) disks are now up to No.88. Fortunately the prices of our blank 3,5" disks are down to $35.00 now!


Have you heard the one about this member of a well known computer club who was renowned for his unrivalled collection of computer software - {t was probably without parallel in the whole of Brisbane. Now we are not concerned how he came by this collection of software, but fairly recently he got a surprise visit late one night by two members of the Commonwealth Police Force. Well, you can {magine how he felt - perhaps the end of that very fine collection! But boy, did he utter a sigh of relfef when he found out that they picked the wrong address - they were after some local drug peddlars, and were definitely not Interested in pirated software!


One of our more widely travelled country members {is Tony Mitchell. A member of the Federal Police force (no, he was not in on the above mentioned raid!), he has moved from Toowoomba, to Canberra and now is a resident of Sydney. He own a 128 and an Amiga and now offers a Digitising Service.

By supplying him with a’Black & White or Colour photograph, Tony converts this into a digitised Picture in ef{ther PrintShop or Doodle format. You can than either view your Photograph on the screen or print {tt out on your printer. You can also, with the right type of paper, produce a screen-print for a T-shirt etc.

see the 'Bytes’ column tor further details.


There were some interesting tidbits of information in the September {issue of the Gazette. It looks ag Desktop Publishing (DTP) {3 now on the way for the C-64! GEOS have @ program called geoPublish and Timeworks are releasing The Timeworkg Desktop Publisher. Another new one from the GEOS people is called geoProgrammer for Machine Language fiends - {t consists of a geoAssembler, geoLinker and geoDebugger.



We are pleased to announce that Cor Geels is taking over from Rob Adamson as Coordinator of the Wavell Heights Sub-Group. Welcome on board Cor!


Recently I chided one of our regular Cursor contributors, Murray Smith, about the Condition of his printer ribbon. Well, he must have taken my words to heart, because he hot-footed it to a local C......r electrical store who ordered him one 803 ribbon for which he had to pay over $28.00!!!

Well, we don’t know if he was ripped off, but it sure sounds too expensive to us. If you do need new ribbons or have your old ones re-packed contact either of the two following suppliers, who would certainly sell you one for less than $15.00:

P.R. Business Machines P/L, 611 Wynnum Rd, Morningside - Ph. 3994155 or Jane’s Computer Supplies, 48 Cribb St, Milton - Ph. 3690420



In July the Australian Commodore Company signed a $12 million agreement with IPL-DATRON, a Sydney based computer peripheral distributor, to market a range of PC printers. Under the agreement , IPL-Datron will supply taser, dot-matrix and thermal Printers for the entire range of Commodore computers, from the C-64 to IBM compatibles ag well as the Amiga.

This meang that in the future Commodore will be marketing several computers from the OKI stable, including the Laserline 6 (compatible with HP Lagerjet+), a3 well as 10" and 15" dot matrix printers with single and dual 9 pin print heads. There will also be a non-{mpact thermal printer in the range. j

According to Tony Serra, "the printers will be go keanly priced that it will be difficult tor anyone to overlook them."


PUBLIC DOMAIN DISKS (C-64 & C-128) - $3.00 ea (+ $2.00 Postage - up to 5 Disks) PUBLIC DOMAIN TAPES (C-64) - $2.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage Per Order)

BLANK DISKS 5,25" (DS/DD) - $12.00 per 10 (+ $2.00 Postage) - (No Libr. Case] MULTI-COLOURED DISKS 5,25" (SS/DD) - $18.00 per box of 10 (+ $2.00 Postage) COLOURED DISKS 5,25" (DS/DD) - $22.00 per box of 10 (+ $2.00 Postage)

DISK BOXES (hold 90 5,25" disks) - $20.00 ea (+ $5.00 Postage)

PUBLIC DOMAIN DISKS FOR AMIGA 3,5" - $6.00 ea (+ $2.00 Postage - up to 5 Disks) BLANK DISKS FOR AMIGA 3,5" - $35.00 per 10 (+.$2.00 Postage) - (No Libr. Case] DISK BOXES for 3,5" disks: Temporarily Unavailable

"PUBLIC DOMAIN BOOK" (for C-64) - $5.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage)

"STARTING WITH DISK DRIVES" (for 1541 owners) - $2.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage) "C-128 MEMORY MAP” - $2.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage)

"AMIGA DOS SUMMARY” - $3.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage)

"AMIGA BEGINNERS GUIDE" - $7.00 ea (+ $2.00 Postage)

TURBO-ROM for C-64 or C-128: Members Price - $40.00

Customised Version (Your choice of Screen Colours + Your Name on Screen): $45.00 AMIGA SPECIAL PRINTER CABLE - $25.00

USER PORT PLUG (with Key Way) - $8.00 (+ $1.00 Postage)

USER PORT PLUG BACKSHELL - $3.00 (+ $1.00 Postage)

USER PORT to CENTRONICS CABLE - $35.00 (+ $1.00 Postage)

ADDRESS LABELS (23 x 89 mm) - $14.00 per 1000

RIBBONS for MPS-1000, GX-80, LX-80 PRINTERS - $8.00 ea (+ $1.00 Postage)

ADDRESS all orders to P.O. Box 274 - Springwood - QLD - 4127

Cheques to be made out to: C.C.U.G. (Q) Ine.

UPGRADE CHARACTER EPROM for 801/1525 Printers. - (Descenders on p,g,q,y j.) (Also requires exchange of ROM chip.) - Supplied & Fitted $30.00

UPGRADE EPROM to convert 1526 Printer to 802 Printer - $20.00

Contact Lester Bennett on 800 1243 before 8pm on weekdays for more details.

Available for Hire to Members only: 1526 & 1101 Commodore Printers

For details contact John Van Staveren on 372 3651 (after hours)

COMPUTER ADDITIONS by Anthony Thyssen during Milton Workshop Meetings. If this is not suitable contact Anthony on 371 1233 to arrange installation at his Taringa premises.


RESET BUTTONS: $6.00 RESET RE-ENABLE: $6.00 (Tap reset switch while pushing this DEVICE NUMBER CHANGE: %$%6.00 button to reset a protected program. ]

c-64/128 COMPUTER SELECTION SWITCH: $6.00 TURBO ROM INSTALLATION: C-64 with Socket or C-128 %6.00 C-64 without Socket or C-128D $10.00 WRITE PROTECT SWITCHES: $6.00 WRITE ENABLE SWITCHES: $%6.00

The Following Items To Order Only:


RAM CARTRIDGE - 8 KByte: $%40.00, 16 KByte: $%55.00



by Phil Guerney

Quandary. It has faced others in this group and it is worrying me more and more lately. The quandary {s "Why I am sticking with Commodore computing gear?".

If you bought your Commodore computer just to play games then I! don’t suppose you'd be reading this. If you are like me, then you bought it because it seemed the best and cheapest way to play with your own word processor or spreadsheet, to program in BASIC and other languages, to learn machine language, to have fun with computer graphics and sound, to make use of programs like Printshop or Newsroom, AND to play games. If so, then also like me you may be wondering if you still have the cheapest and best computer for the purpose,

» The C64, 1541 disk drive and 1701 monitor in front of me at the moment cost me $1230 three years ago. | use an IBM-clone at my work which cost $3500 when we got it, but every week the price of clones seems to fall a bit more and now I could buy an equivalent system (monochrome graphics, 640K, 20MB hard disk) for less than $2000 and a twin floppy system for less than $1200.

I know that for all "applications" and high-level programming the clone beats the Commodore 64/128 systems hands down. Foe colour graphics and sound as well as games, the C64/128 wing easily. | was going to begin this paragraph with the word dilemma, but my dictionary defines a dilemma as having to make a choice between two evils. ["m not sure whether there 1s a word for having ta choose between equally attractive alternatives - because having both systems seems to be the only way out!


| borrowed the CP/M cartridge from the software library along with the two languages we have to run under the C64 CP/M operating system (TurboPascal and Nevada Cobol) so that | could include benchmarks for these languages in my listings of alternative languages for the C64 - but | couldn’t get the CP/M system to stay alive for more than a minute or two. At any moment from turning on up to the time it took to load the CP/M software, then load a program such as TurboPascal, a couple of characters like exclamation marks or quote marks would suddenly appear at afew random points over the screen and the whole outfit was then frozen. | just managed to get TurboPascal running once to the point where | could get it to list the disk directory. Many other attempts never reached the opening screen. So | asked Greg Perry who. immediately said that the CP/M cartridge only worked with the very earliest C64’s due to subtle design changes. | bought mine in April 1984, but that ts obviously not old enough.

So, if your C64 is newer than that, don’t bother trying the CP/M cartridge. Anyway, there’s hardly any software in 1541 disk drive format for the CP/M system other than those two languages. I’1l just have to get a C128 to play with true CP/M (but | probably won’t - see the first item!).


A VE RY B-ArS) I6C Dw ibet: iRe ¥ THAT VORKS

by Dennis Wright

If you have a memory like mine, you need a diary or appointment book handy at all times. That's OK if you sit at a desk all day and can jot in important things, but you can't take a cumbersome great diary with you everywhere. Even a little pocket diary gets mislaid or can be inconvenient. How do you get round it?

In the 1987 Special Issue of RUN (pp. 130-131). there's a4 very Simple idea that creates a flexible and versatile diary for you. I've added a few refinements to it that make it even more easy and effective to use, and as the printed version ends up a piece of paper about the size of your wallet, you can slip it into any pocket for ready reference. Because you can reprint it as often as you like, you can scribble extra notes on the back of it as things come up, and no worries if you lose it. Just print it again when you get home!

-— e°coooc90o w~w~wOOCO

PREPARED RADIO ae A bed ~-GTERLING @utaras. eno cte - CANHBOOK


i \ 1 l 1 A 1 1 i 1 i i i 1 j i 1 t i


The basic principle, as explained in RUN, is the creation of a simple non-executable program, by assigning the figure i to . thas year, and adding the month and day numerically in that sequence for example:-

10926 means 26 September, 1987, made up like this: 1 = 1987

09 = September (the ninth month) 26 = 26th (26th day of the month)

Your program, in its simplest form, might look like this: 10. LIST 1L00Gc0-—




When you run the program, the first line simply lists the remainder, so there's no need to worry about syntax beyond that line. When some appointment comes up, you just create a line for it (though you should check by listing that date first to see if you already have something else against it. Otherwise the first entry will disappear forever! ) Your computer will automatically sort it into its proper line sequence when you list or run the program. If you want to print the diary, you use the simple printing command:


That's it, in a nutshell, and it works very well. However, you can smarten it up a good deal and make it more versatile, without much effort at all. Try adding the following lines. Do NOT put a space anywhere (up to Line 100) unless indicated by {SPACE}. Use the CTRL key with the colours mentioned (e.g., {CYN} means CTRL key withthe "4 Key). ~Likewrse for’ (RVS) (= CIRES) ‘and {OFF} (= CTRLO).

10) POKES3280 ,6¢POKES3261.,0

20 PRINT" {CLR}{6 DOWN} {RVS} {BLK} {SPACE}LIST10900-10999:


30 PRINTCHR$ (158)




70 PRINT" {HOME} ": PRINTCHR$ (30)

80 LIST10906:

You have now completed the short program which sets up the’ screen. (If it*s right. it should like the illustration at the end of this article.) Now type the diary framework as below. As many of the lines are repeated, just replace line numbers and make minor adjustments (e.g., Line 10000 is the same as Line 10002, g0 you only need to change the last O in 10000 to a 2 and press RETURN, and Line 10002 will be done. If you group identical lines together when typing it in, they can be done very quickly. Line 10906 is for demonstration purposes only.



an €<<<<< SEPTEMBER >> >> > >-—----— WRITE ARTICLE FOR CURSOR NOW!



Sa <<<<<<< OCTOBER >> >>>>>-----——


——— ££ <<< <NOVEMBERD 3999 oneoee


ehh pe po ppp


oa rae <<<<<< DECEMBER >>> >>> >-----— MERRY CHRISTMAS TO ALL MY READERS



-—“ TT £<6<¢<¢< JANUARY >> >>> >> >-—-——




(NOTE: To save space, I have omitted LINES 20200-21299, (i.e. Feb- ruary—December next year) but they follow exactly the same pattern you see above.)

Wouldn't it rot your jocks? - (a3 a good | Line 20 (as it appears in the program) lists friend, not unknown to CURSOR readers, the diary on the screen for September only,

$ays when he makes a clerical error.) when the RETURN key is pressed. You can forgot to mention something important. I} list any part of the diary to the screen by should be able to squeeze it in here! => altering the line nos. in that LIST statement.

SO0000 SAVE"@0:DIARY",8 90110 OPEN6 ,4,6:PRINT#6,CHR$ (27) ; CHR$S (51) ;CHRS(15) :CLOSE6:REM LINE

SPACE NL10 90120 OPEN6,4,6:PRINT#6,CHRS$(27) ;CHR$(83) : CHRS(49) :CLOSE6:REM SUPER


CHARACTERS NL1i0O 50140 OPEN4.4:CMD4:LIST10000—-10999

50150 PRINT#4:CLOSE4

How to use Lines 10-80

If the current month is October rather than September, LIST Line 20, and alter the month to October or whatever one you want.


Para oe ee want at the top of the screen, LIST Line 80 and alter it accordingly. If, for example, ou a Christmas Day, change Line 80 to: 4 poeredoe Bae

80 LIst 11225

The best time to make these changes is after you add new daily entries and just before saving your updated diary.

Explanation of Lines 50000 and above:

These are lines never run as 4 program, but’ gaved for your convenience when re-filing your updated diary or Printing it. Note

how it works below:

50000 This saves you typing the SAVE WITH REPLACE command every time you want to update the diary. When you've finished updating

the daily entries, simply (a) LIST line 50000 (b) Put the cursor on the 5 in 50000

(c) Press the space bar five times (d) Press RETURN, and your disk file will be updated,

What if you have too many entries for one BASIC line (i.e. 80 characters)? An example's the clearest way to explain. it Suppose you have too many entries for 30 September. Go to a blanc

line on the screen, and type:

10930 LIST 10950-10998

{Press RETURN} Change the original line number 10930 to 10952 and press RETURN Use lines 10952-10998 for any extra entries. You have nearly 50 lines to use in this way, but it's unlikely you'll need that many

Lines 50100-50150

These are printer commands that can be used in exactly the same wa

ag line 50000. Even when the READY prompt comes up, because it hae only six characters, it won't overwrite the printer commands. Just List 50000- and use the cursor and space bar to execute that part of the program line by line in the game way as described for Line

50000. Note that the lines specified for printing in Line 50140 are l for one month (in this case; September). You can Specify ag ace

of the diary to be printed as you like by altering those ]j

numbers. (For example, if you want to print October-Decemha- change the lines mentioned in Line 50140 to 11000-11299 oe a NOTE: Lines 50100-50150 produce very tiny characters on the NL10

Micronics. If you have a MPS 802 or other Commodore Printer use

the following.

50110 OPEN6 .4,6:PRINT#6,CHR$(25) :CLOSE6:REM LINE SPACE mpg 802 50120 OPEN4,4:CMD4:LIST10000-—10999 50130 PRINT#4:CLOSE4

If you have another sort of printer, I'm sure you know Or can find from your printer manual the necessary print commands, sai



1 Try to keep any daily entry to just one screen li


rather than the two which BASIC allows. It will print out neater.

(Using 80 characters will print right across the page. ) Abbrevi where necessary. For example, one of my daily entries reads: 10804 CAR/MING EXEC CTEE 1PM/TRNG 7PM


(which tells me that I have to get the car serviced today, a meet—

ing of the Executive Committee at 1 pm, and hockey training at 7


: Don't try to start a daily entry with a number, such as an appointment time. BASIC will be confused by it, warning you of a Syntax error.

Don't use a question mark in a daily entry it will come out when listed as PRINT. 4. Delete an entry for a date that's past by typing’ ‘the *')ine number on a blank line and pressing RETURN. But what if LoS? ‘al recurring date —- an annual event that you want to keep a more Permanent record of, like a birthday or anniversary? Simple just replace the first digit (which is always a1) with a

2, press RETURN, and then delete the entry for this year. Next time you list it. it will appear beyond all this year's entries.

Do that with any line you want to repeat for next year's diary.


you are still using it the year after next, you can change all the first digit 23 with 3s in the same way. Incidentally, the highest

line number you can list in BASIC on the C64 is 63999.

Well, there it? is! Tt works like ae charm. No excuses’ for forgetting SHE/HE WHO MUST BE OBEYED's' birthday or a wedding

anniversary next time round!



The top half of your screen should look something like this.

=—=Gou00° ==

Dennis has kindly made his modifled Diary program available to us, and {t has been passed on to Bill Bohlen for Inelusfon on the next Public Domain Disk.




by Peter Roulstone

My updated membership card and receipt arrived in the mail the other day and when | opened it, lo and behold our highly esteemed Secretary Norm Chambers had appended a note with a request to do a review. So now here | sit trying to put seven months experience with DOLPHIN DOS down on paper. O.K., I'11 do my best!

First, what is Dolphin Dos I hear some of you ask? Dolphin Dos is a package that streamlines the disk operating system for your C64 and 1541. But I have a quick loading cartridge I hear you say again. Ahh, but this is NOT a cartridge and is in fact installed {inside your computer and disk drive. Installation can be done by anyone with a bit of electrical knowledge, in fact my own was put in by yours truly. A new Kernal chip goes into the C64 and comes with a switch in case Dolphin Dos needs to be switched out (which happens rarely). Two chips need to be taken out of the 1541 and a motherboard put in their place with the chips installed into the top of the board. Two sets of wire lead off the board - the first leads to a switch, like the one on the C64, and switches out the Dolphin Dos in the drive; the second is a parallel cable which leads to the user port of the C64. This cable is the major factor in speeding up disk operations. Instead of just one bit of Information travelling along the serial cable at a time, several bits move along the parallel cable simultaneously, thus cutting down considerably {in access time.

Because of the difference in design Dolphin Dos needs a special fitting to allow it to be installed in the older 1541's.

The following {s a benchtest, comparing speeds between a normal load, a fast load cartridge and Dolphin Dos:

Normal Fastload Dolphin Dos Easy Script 1°02" 58" 18" SpeedScript 16" 6" 2" Load 127 BLK PRG File 1*22" oo" 4" Save 127 BLK PRG File 1278 L227 8" Load 31 BLK SEQ File 228 aan 9” Save 31 BLK SEQ File at" at" 10"

Loading and Saving of RELative files is also increased by a factor of 3 with scratching and validating being increased by a hefty factor of 6.

The story doesn’t stop there of course. Disk commands are cut down by replacing the normal CBM syntax with the ‘At’ sign (@), the same as in most Dos Wedge programs. Fast format {a available to format a disk in 20 seconds with the added advantage of being able to format to track 40 for an extra 85 blocks.

There’s also a built-in machine code monitor, but this item is not as versatile ag some other M.C. monitors.




The Function keys have been programmed to get certain function S$ quicki

Fi LIST F2 SYS $0 (Monitor) F3 RUN F4 VERIFY FS LOAD"0O:#",6,1 F6 SAVE"@:

F7 Display Directory

Two minor headaches, the "Save & Replace bug" and the "Knocking" (caused b certain types of disk ‘copy protection’) have both been refurbished with tie knocking down to a more tolerant and safer level. The drive algo starts up wh e disk {s inserted in the drive, allowing the disk to centralize on the hub i ' . a newer 1541's, a he

Before you go racing down to the corner computer shop to Purchase Dolphin D the price tag igs around $170>00 - a price that quite a few People would meats a until you realise that the features are very outstanding and worth a little bit more. But then, because I have Dolphin Dos installed, | am slightly biased go Syl 2leave the final evaluation up to you.

The Commodore 128 Subroutine Library

by David D Busch - published by Bantam Books (our copy from B.C.F. Bookstores - 107 Elizabeth Street, Brisbane)

by Jim Vick

This book {is aimed at the computer owner who wishes to try Programming for themselves but is not sure exactly how to go about writing some of the routines they wish to use. The level of the book is fairly low, being aimed more at the novice rather than the experienced user but {tt still has some good tips that may be of interest to all programers.

The book is very well documented with a list of all the {ndividual subroutines at the front (84 in all), broken into areas of common interest and an index at the back in alphabetical order.

The main areas which the book covers are:

Business and Financial---with routines for such things as loan repayments,rate of return,date formatter, regular deposits etc.

String handling---with routines for inserts, sorts, encoding, decoding counters etc.

Games routines---for checking joystick movements, drawing on the screen, using paddies, fllping coins, dealing cards etc.

Graphics and sound---this covers bit map drawing, moving shapes, graphics plotting and creating a range of sounds for use in programs guch as Sirens, planes, _ helicopters, clock and so on.

Software tricks---In this section the book looks a range of utility type ruutines that do various useful things such as checking elapsed time, creating programmed keys, a gimple terminal etc.

The final sectlon called Bits and Bytes shows how to calculate decimal, hex and binary notation, allows you to find the value of an individual bit tn memory and change it, calculate primes etc,


All subroutines follow the same general format which 1s:

A description of what the routine is going to do. '

A listing of the routine follows with all the hard to read graphics characters listed as their CHR% equivalents.

A brief description of how the routine may be used.

A line by line description of what the routine {is doing and what must be done to make it work.

It tella you what variables etc. you must supply in the program to make it run.

It gives an {dea of suggested enhancements to modify routines.

And finally tells you what the result of the routine run will be and what the output will look like.

Generally | think the book is very well written and would be of use to any relatively {[nexperienced programmer who wishes to develop their skills by incorporating the routines explained in this book.


by Compute! Publications - R.R.P. $22.95

(Our copy from B.C.F. Bookstores)

by Clarence Stock

This book is arranged with "A Definition of Terms" as the introduction, rather than a glossary usually found at the rear of a book. The definition of terms {g more a definition of concepts, as not only are there written definitions, but algo pic- torial drawings in some cases which assist in the explanations.

Chapters within the book include SID - the Sound Interface Device, Music and the Sound Editor, Sound Effects, Advanced Functions end the last chapter {gs called Putting It All Together. The appendices cover Beginners Guide to Typing in Programs, How to Type in Programs, Automatic Prootreader (same es on the different Compute!’s Gazette disks) and a Commodore 64 Sound Memory Map. ,

The first chapter on SID (Sound Interface Device) explains the procedure involved for your C-64 to make simple sounds. Program 1-1 is exactly that - a program which produces a simple sound. Thereafter follows an agsortment of programa using different tones, volume adjustments, changing the shape of the sound envelope and using a variety of waveforms. Overall this chapter provides a basic description of the SID. Without a firm understanding of this section the remainder of the book

would be most difficult to comprehend.

Music and the Sound Editor shows how to program music on your C-64, how to use it ag a musical instrument and how to store and play the music. The program starts with "Yankee Doodle", followed by a variation of time and rhythm - it is modified into an interesting piece of music. The second main portion of this chapter covers a 'One - Voice Sound Editor" program which makes it eagy to enter notes, alter the length of the sustain, enter pauses, save a plece of music, load previous compositions and play the assembled melody. The next section describes the method of playing two notes at the same time, thereby producing harmonic sounds. A number of programs are provided to demonstrate harmony and disharmony in music. The tuning on of all three voices is the last part of this chapter. A program !s provided which has each voice tuning on {n turn, the combination of which produces a chord. The Chord Editor


program is similar to the Onae-Voice Sound Editor previously described, but allows you to program all three voices at once.

The Sound Effects chapter looks at four different sound types; Hard sounds, Soft sounds, Slowly Rising Tapered Sounds and Slowly Falling Tapered Sounds. There are 34 demonstration programs to try, starting with the "Short Beep” and finishing with the sound of "Crunching Snow". A very interesting section.

Advanced Functions deals with features available on the SID chip not previously covered and a further explanation of basic sound functions, i.e. the initialization process, pitch control, frequency calculation, pulse width, the envelope generator (ADSR), multi-volume gound, test bit, additive synthesis, ring modulation, synchro- nization, resonance and filter selection.

The last chapter, Putting It All Together, shows how to successfully insert sound effects and music routines into other programs, thus combining graphics and _ sound. Sixteen demonstration programs are provided, from a bouncing ball to a sound game as examples.

In summary, I feel thet the book is good value for money, except that | prefer a hard cover. The detailing of the C-64 sound production, along with many demonstration programs makes this book a recommended tutorial for all those who desire to obtain a better understanding of the C-64's SID.


(Our copy from B.C.F. Bookstores)

by Phil Guerney

First be warned that this book will hardly teach you anything about machine language (ML). It {gs a conpilation of articles that mostly have appeared in Compute! and Compute!’s Gazette that give (usually short) ML programs that are either "Basic Aida" such as auto line numbering, "utilities" like character and sprite editors or graphic commands.

Host programs given ara3 in the form of either BASIC loaders or MLX formatted fast entry (mistake proof?) listings. Only 2 out of 31 articles give commented source code listings to see how the programs work. To actually learn ML, Compute!’s other two books - The First (and Second) Books of Machine Language - are much better. With that aside, this book contains a very good collection of programs including Ultrafont+, which is the best programmable character editor available on the C64.

Other useful ones are the Sprite Magic sprite editor (throw away all those written in BASIC), the "two-sprite two-joystick” and "multiple key scan" routines for game writers, and "Ultrasort" for application writers.

Almost all can be had for free by borrowing the original magazine issues from the club library, but here for $29.95 you have them ali together for much less than a Compute! subscription. If you do buy the book, then please don’t bother typing the assembler and disassembier given in BASSIC - use the Commodore assembler on the club’s PD disk Al or Compute!'s own LADS (an assembler in ML) from their Second Book of ML and also on a Club disk, and use the disassembler that is part of all ML monitors !ike Supermon. Also don’t try to enter all 12 pages containing 11,382 numbers to get Ultrafont+ - use the Club and get a copy from someone else instead!



REEZE FRAHE Mk, II1b - The Next Generatio

by Murray Saith

If you are an avid reader of our beloved newsletter CURSOR you may have noticed that two other such articles of mine concerning the product Freeze Frame (July'86@ and March’67). If that is the case, take note - the news isn’t.all good this time.

[ must stress the fact that the previous articles dealt with hands-on experience, whereas this one contains pergonal opinions of both myself and other nameless parties.

Freeze Frame Mk.II{b {s the latest in the line of snap-shot type copying programs or, if you prefer, back-up device might be a amore appropriate definition. This version was brought out to cater for the {Introduction of ’Anti-freeze’ in most new software titles Ca form of software protection mainly employed by UK software manu- facturers